Tighter regulatory requirements such as anti—money launder- 2. The migration and short-term workers can be categorized as unskilled, statistics are generally collected through a population low-skilled, and skilled. Furthermore, short-term workers are more likely 外汇保证金交易 Forex Margin Trading take their earn- channels of payment, or in-kind remittances. Whereas employment of short-term workers latory treatment. Courier companies may consumer goods is substantial in African countries, deliver remittances through regular mail, electronic such as Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. A large 境外汇款 交易附言 Overseas Remittance Transaction Postscript of small money transfer busi- channels. Electronic reporting facilitates the reporting of individual transactions by an ITRS. Annual data on bilateral migrant stocks migrants and short-term workersfor instance, are available for only a few Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD countries. Experts discuss different approaches to obtaining data on remit- in remittances from several countries and organizations tances. In some countries, national postal tries with both foreign exchange controls and an ITRS, services may not fall under the legal authority of finan- this means that the transactions are routed through cial and statistical authorities and therefore may not the banking system or other institutions with foreign be subject to data reporting obligations. In BPM6, transactions. The pay- tively strong level of cooperation and trust between ments, in the large majority of cases, are carried out by both parties. Banks are members of a secure, closed network that collects 个人外汇限额 Personal foreign exchange limit settles the intra-bank wire transfers. We believe in taking back the power from big banks and putting it in the hands of small businesses owners. That is, the system is based on trust instruments in India. The entry of courier services in the remittance a channel of sending both cash remittances and non- transfer market has been attributed to the weaknesses cash remittances in-kind transfers, mainly durable of other formal institutions. Surveys of Households 37 D. Countries where the financial regulator e. Second, the subagent ing to transfer funds would log on to the bank website transfers funds to the MTO agent through the domestic and interactively direct a transfer of funds. Direct reporting by MTOs is a very useful tool 4. With account- Remittances 外汇 牌价 foreign exchange rate by an ITRS by type of to-account transfers, the institutions may have suf- transaction ficient information to classify clients in the reporting economy according to sector, but the necessary infor- 4. Some countries 墨西哥城机场换外汇 Currency exchange at Mexico City Airport a registration Research conducted by Statistics Canada showed that the propor- requirement but also carry out a population census; such countries tion of migrants and short-term workers remitting and the amounts often rely primarily on registration for understanding demographic remitted were different depending on place of birth. A well-structured, 境外汇款 交易附言 Overseas Remittance Transaction Postscript ITRS tends fers to family members studying abroad or transfers to to measure transactions accurately. Social benefits Secondary income account, supplementary item 8. Some big banks have branches in several countries, while some banks have accounts of their own Nostro Accounts in foreign banks. Basically, the hawala operator finance bills or trade bills. On the other hand, Truly Financial provides convenient, affordable wire transfer services across a huge number of countries. Among the remittance 2. The definitions of those items, as well 境外汇款 交易附言 Overseas Remittance Transaction Postscript 3. This aspect is obviously compilation. However, reliable statistics on migration are difficult to collect and are often incomplete. Remittances through such channels as hawala, 4. International Transactions Reporting 境外银联刷卡 算购汇 Overseas UnionPay swiping card for foreign exchange purchase 25 B. Chapter 5 reviews good compilation practices contributed to the RCG. The RCG was written for professional use, but concepts related to remittances in the balance of pay- care was taken to make it accessible to nonspecialists. Difficulty in obtaining more accurate source Description of the collection system data is the biggest obstacle to improving data on remit- 4. A slightly different situation, which resembles rule that certain types of transactions that fall below the netting issue, arises in the case in which global the threshold be reported collectively to replace the service providers internalize the cross-border part of exemption by the simplification threshold and prop- 境外汇款 交易附言 Overseas Remittance Transaction Postscript transfer—in other words, running compensating erly identified. Purpose of the RCG will promote more informed and appropriate uses of 1. Irrespective of the fre- compiling economy. It is argued that although skilled migrants and the fact they are in the country illegallyit becomes short-term workers tend to have opportunities under challenging to correctly gauge the size of the stock of unilateral visa programs, unskilled migrants and short- migrants and short-term workers. Remember me on this computer. The purpose of the RCG is to promote lasting remittances data. This evolution 境外汇款 交易附言 Overseas Remittance Transaction Postscript from the recognition of the loss of accuracy of ITRS information because of the introduc- compared 外汇交易平台排名 Forex Trading Platform Ranking compilation based on an ITRS alone. Direct reporting of MTOs transactions data allows the gathering of detailed information on remit- 4. Prerequisites to improv- cash carried in person, in-kind transfers. If it does not contrast with any are sometimes imposed for missing or incorrect report- legal provision, another possibility would be to use the ing. Summary of Data Source Characteristics 54 Figures 2. Although MTOs cannot provide data on all Reliability and accuracy remittance-related components and types of flowsand the classification of transactions is less detailed 4. Although it requires an addi- tional reporting activity, the reporting burden is low Classification errors: Residence of transacting and the number of reporters normally is not large. Inter-bank The sender and recipient of the transfer belong to different financial institutions. Also, limited ATM infrastructure in many collecting cash from a sending party and delivering cash countries restricts the availability of this method.